The UN Partition Plan
The UN Partition Plan was proposed by the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine and approved by a majority vote in the UN General Assembly on November 29th, 1947. The plan proposed partitioning the land west of the Jordan River into three regions: a democratic Arab state, a democratic Jewish state, and international control over 1% of the territory which included Jerusalem and Bethlehem. The Partition Plan was accepted by the Jewish Yishuv leadership and rejected by Arab leadership.
The War of Independence/Nakba
The war of 1948 that broke out with the declaration of independence of the State of Israel created the borders of the new state and resulted in the displacement of 750,000 Palestinian refugees. In the ceasefire agreement signed in Rhodes, the green line was drawn, which turned into the de facto border of Israel and has been recognized since by the international community as Israel’s international border.
The Six-Day War
The Six-Day War led to the occupation of the West Bank and East Jerusalem by Israeli forces, which continues until this day. The Gaza Strip, then under Egyptian control, was also conquered and remained under Israeli control until the disengagement plan in 2005. In the aftermath of the war, Jewish settlements were built in the occupied territories. Jewish settlers retained their status and rights as Israeli citizens, while Palestinians in the territories came under Israeli military administration.
The Allon Plan was a policy plan created by then Minister of Labor Yigal Allon, and was published shortly after the Six-Day War. The plan proposed an arrangement on the basis of the Green Line, in which territories conquered by Israel would be partitioned between Israel and an autonomous Palestinian entity in the West Bank
Two States for Two Peoples
“Two States for Two Peoples” – in the year 1972, Aryeh “Lova” Eliav, general secretary of the Labour party, published his book “Land of the Hart,” in which the phrase “two states for two peoples” was coined for the first time. In the book, which traces the history of the conflict over the land from the 19th century until 1967, Eliav presented a vision of two states living side by side in peace, and working together in economic, trade, cultural, and scientific fields.
Voices within the PLO Support a Two-State Solution
Palestinian voices from within the PLO came out in support for a two-state solution. Said Hammami, member of the Palestinian National Council, who was appointed as the PLO representative in London, began to call for a solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict on the basis of the two-state solution. In 1977, Hammami declared that the PLO was prepared to recognize Israel in exchange for complete disengagement from the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, and was ready for dialogue on the basis of mutual recognition.
Autonomy Plan of Menachem Begin
Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin’s autonomy plan proposed administrative autonomy to the Palestinian residents of the West Bank and Gaza. The plan, which was formulated against the backdrop of peace talks between Israel and Egypt, was intended to allow for the establishment of an independent Palestinian entity that was less than a state, without Israeli interference. In reality, the Israeli government had decided not to advance the plan, and it became irrelevant with the passing of the Jerusalem Basic Law in 1980 which prevented transfer of authority over the city, including territories conquered in 1967, to any actor besides Israel.
After Outbreak of First Intifada
About a year after the First Intifada began, and in light of the King of Jordan’s cutting of Jordan’s ties to the West Bank, the PLO announced for the first time its recognition of the principle of two states and recognized Israel’s right to exist. Following the declaration, the United States commenced official dialogue with the PLO which has ever since followed the principle of the two-state solution.
The Oslo Accords
The Oslo Accords were signed between 1993 and 1995 between Israel and the PLO by Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat. The Accords included mutual recognition, the establishment of the Palestinian Authority and agreement to open negotiations over a final-status agreement in 1999. During the period of the Netanyahu government between 1996-1999, the Hebron Protocol and Wye River Memorandum were signed as part of the Oslo Accords, but negotiations for a peace agreement were not launched.
Middle East Peace Summit at Camp David
The Middle East Peace Summit at Camp David was held in 2000, between US President Bill Clinton, Prime Minister Ehud Barak and PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat. During the conference, significant progress was made on issues such as borders, Jerusalem, and security matters, but the sides did not succeed in reaching a comprehensive agreement.
The Taba Summit – a meeting of the two parties’ negotiating teams, during which talks achieved greater progress, including on the refugee issue, but given the upcoming elections in Israel, the two leaders Barak and Arafat were not present and talks did not continue following Barak’s loss in the elections.
Arab Peace Initiative
The Arab Peace Initiative, originally known as the Saudi Peace Initiative, was a policy proposal put forth by Crown Prince Abdullah bin Abdulaziz at the Arab League Summit in 2002. The Initiative calls for an end to the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, Israeli withdrawal from the territories and the establishment of a Palestinian state with a capital in East Jerusalem. In exchange, all of the Arab states would normalize relations with Israel. The Initiative was adopted by the members of the Arab League and became the Arab Peace Initiative, which was also adopted by members of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation.
Road Map for Peace
The Road Map for Peace presented by US President George Bush was based on the two-state solution, mutual recognition of the two peoples for a state, settlement building freeze, and the end of the occupation that had begun in 1967. The Palestinian Authority accepted the proposal, while the Israeli government presented 14 reservations to it.
The Geneva Initiative
The Geneva Initiative was born following the end of talks in Taba in 2001. Former Minister of Justice Yossi Beilin and General Secretary of the PLO Yasser Abed Rabbo continued talks in unofficial track II negotiations, with the goal of assessing whether or not it is possible to reach a detailed final status agreement. During two years of talks, leading experts and public figures from both sides took part, including ministers, members of parliament, former high-ranking security officials, mayors, academics, and more. Ultimately, an agreed-upon detailed document was reached, which included full solutions to all of the issues at stake, including mutual recognition of the two nations’ right to an independent state, the establishment of a demilitarized Palestinian state, retention of major settlement blocks under Israeli sovereignty, two capitals in Jerusalem, comprehensive arrangements for solving the refugee issue, declaration of an end to the conflict and an end of all claims.
The Disengagement Plan
The Disengagement Plan, which Prime Minister Ariel Sharon implemented in 2005, consisted of the evacuation of residents of all Israeli settlements in the Gaza Strip and withdrawal of the Israeli Defense Forces to the Green Line border in the region. At the same time, four isolated settlements were evacuated in the West Bank.
The Annapolis Conference took place in Annapolis, USA, with the participation of representatives of Israel, the PLO, the Quartet (European Union, United States, United Nations, and Russia), and representatives of most Arab League member states. The purpose of the summit was to restart the peace process, that had been frozen since 2001, and to pave a way for negotiations towards an Israeli-Palestinian final status peace agreement. The negotiations that took place following the summit brought the sides much closer together and reached understandings about the establishment of a Palestinian state and security arrangements, but ended with Prime Minister Olmert’s resignation, without an agreement being signed.
Bar Ilan Speech
The Bar Ilan Speech was given by Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu in 2009 in the Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies in Bar Ilan. In the speech, which details Netanyahu’s policy vision for the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, he expressed support in principle for the first time for the establishment of a Palestinian state next to the State of Israel, on the condition that it would be demilitarized and that the Palestinians would recognize Israel as the state of the Jewish people.
The Kerry Initiative
The Kerry Initiative was a negotiation process led by US Secretary of State John Kerry in which Prime Minister Netanyahu agreed in principle to the establishment of a Palestinian state on the basis of 1967 borders, while Israel would receive security guarantees from the United States. During talks, there was progress on the issue of refugees but the two sides did not reach an agreement, even in principle, on the issue of Jerusalem, and talks ended without an agreement.
The Trump Plan
The Trump Plan, also known as “The Deal of the Century,” was a proposal for solving the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. Alongside an emphasis on economic issues, the plan is mainly the realization of a two-state solution, Israel and Palestine, through the marked adoption of the Israeli narrative, which gives top priority to Israeli positions on issues of security, Jerusalem, settlements, and refugees. While the Israeli Prime Minister announced willingness to hold negotiations on the basis of the initiative, the Palestinians refused, stating that in principles of the plan contradicted international law and previous agreements. The plan, and the clause of unilateral annexation of settlements by Israel, was dropped with the establishment of a normalization agreement between Israel and the United Arab Emirates, and President Trump’s electoral loss in the United States.